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Investigation on e-Learning Status Estimation for New Learners -- Classifier Selection on Representative Sample Selection CiNiiでみる

著者名:
YU Siyang  KONDO Kazuaki  NAKAMURA Yuichi  NAKAJIMA Takayuki  DANTSUJI Masatake 

抄録:
This article introduces our investigation on learning state estimation in e-learning on the condition that visual observation and recording of a learner's behaviors is possible. In this research, we examined methods of adaptation for a new learner for whom a small number of ground truth data can be obtained.

出版年月日:
2020-04-01 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
4 , 
ページ:
905-909 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

Multi-cell Interference Mitigation for MIMO Non-orthogonal Multiple Access Systems CiNiiでみる

著者名:
SHIN Changyong  HAN Jiho 

抄録:

This letter proposes a downlink multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-orthogonal multiple access technique that mitigates multi-cell interference (MCI) at cell-edge users, regardless of the number of interfering cells, thereby improving the spectral efficiency. This technique employs specific receive beamforming vectors at the cell-edge users in clusters to minimize the MCI. Based on the receive beamforming vectors adopted by the cell-edge users, the transmit beamforming vectors for a base station (BS) and the receive beamforming vectors for cell-center users are designed to eliminate the inter-cluster interference and maximize the spectral efficiency. As each user can directly obtain its own receive beamforming vector, this technique does not require channel feedback from the users to a BS to design the receive beamforming vectors, thereby reducing the system overhead. We also derive the upper bound of the average sum rate achievable using the proposed technique. Finally, we demonstrate through simulations that the proposed technique achieves a better sum rate performance than the existing schemes and that the derived upper bound is valid.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
, 
号:
, 
ページ:
- , 
ISSN:
0916-8508

Upper Bounds and Constructions of Locating Arrays CiNiiでみる

著者名:
SHI Ce  FU Jianfeng  WANG Chengmin  YAN Jie 

抄録:

The use of locating arrays is motivated by the use of generating software test suites to locate interaction faults in component-based systems. In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial configuration, with which a general combinatorial description of $(\bar{1},t)$-locating arrays is presented. Based on this characterization, a number of locating arrays by means of SSOA and difference covering arrays with prescribed properties are constructed effectively. As a consequence, upper bounds on the size of locating arrays with small number of factors are then obtained.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
, 
号:
, 
ページ:
- , 
ISSN:
0916-8508

A Low-Complexity QR Decomposition with Novel Modified RVD for MIMO Systems CiNiiでみる

著者名:
Sun Lu  Wu Bin  Ye Tianchun 

抄録:

In this letter, a two-stage QR decomposition scheme based on Givens rotation with novel modified real-value decomposition (RVD) is presented. With the modified RVD applied to the result from complex Givens rotation at first stage, the number of non-zero terms needed to be eliminated by real Givens rotation at second stage decreases greatly and the computational complexity is thereby reduced significantly compared to the decomposition scheme with the conventional RVD. Besides, the proposed scheme is suitable for the hardware design of QR decomposition. Evaluation shows that the proposed QR decomposition scheme is superior to the related works in terms of computational complexity.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
, 
号:
, 
ページ:
- , 
ISSN:
0916-8508

Rephrasing Visual Questions by Specifying the Entropy of the Answer Distribution CiNiiでみる

著者名:
TERAO Kento  TAMAKI Toru  RAYTCHEV Bisser  KANEDA Kazufumi  SATOH Shin'ichi 

抄録:

Visual question answering (VQA) is a task of answering a visual question that is a pair of question and image. Some visual questions are ambiguous and some are clear, and it may be appropriate to change the ambiguity of questions from situation to situation. However, this issue has not been addressed by any prior work. We propose a novel task, rephrasing the questions by controlling the ambiguity of the questions. The ambiguity of a visual question is defined by the use of the entropy of the answer distribution predicted by a VQA model. The proposed model rephrases a source question given with an image so that the rephrased question has the ambiguity (or entropy) specified by users. We propose two learning strategies to train the proposed model with the VQA v2 dataset, which has no ambiguity information. We demonstrate the advantage of our approach that can control the ambiguity of the rephrased questions, and an interesting observation that it is harder to increase than to reduce ambiguity.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
2362-2370 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

The Absolute Consistency Problem for Relational Schema Mappings with Functional Dependencies CiNiiでみる

著者名:
ISHIHARA Yasunori  HAYATA Takashi  FUJIWARA Toru 

抄録:

This paper discusses a static analysis problem, called absolute consistency problem, for relational schema mappings. A given schema mapping is said to be absolutely consistent if every source instance has a corresponding target instance. Absolute consistency is an important property because it guarantees that data exchange never fails for any source instance. Originally, for XML schema mappings, the absolute consistency problem was defined and its complexity was investigated by Amano et al. However, as far as the authors know, there are no known results for relational schema mappings. In this paper, we focus on relational schema mappings such that both the source and the target schemas have functional dependencies, under the assumption that mapping rules are defined by constant-free tuple-generating dependencies. In this setting, we show that the absolute consistency problem is in coNP. We also show that it is solvable in polynomial time if the tuple-generating dependencies are full and the size of the left-hand side of each functional dependency is bounded by some constant. Finally, we show that the absolute consistency problem is coNP-hard even if the source schema has no functional dependency and the target schema has only one; or each of the source and the target schemas has only one functional dependency such that the size of the left-hand side of the functional dependency is at most two.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
2278-2288 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

Dual-Carrier 1-Tb/s Transmission Over Field-Deployed G.654.E Fiber Link Using Real-Time Transponder CiNiiでみる

著者名:
HAMAOKA Fukutaro  SEKI Takeshi  OZAKI Josuke  OGISO Yoshihiro  MAEDA Hideki  KISAKA Yoshiaki  TOMIZAWA Masahito  SASAI Takeo  SAITO Kohei  KOBAYASHI Takayuki  MATSUSHITA Asuka  NAKAMURA Masanori  TANIGUCHI Hiroki  KUWAHARA Shoichiro  KAWAHARA Hiroki 

抄録:

We demonstrated 1-Tb/s-class transmissions of field-deployed large-core low-loss fiber links, which is compliant with ITU-T G.654.E, using our newly developed real-time transponder consisting of a state-of-the-art 16-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based digital signal processing application-specific integrated circuit (DSP-ASIC) and an indium phosphide (InP) based high-bandwidth coherent driver modulator (HB-CDM). In this field experiment, we have achieved record transmission distances of 1122km for net data-rate 1-Tb/s transmission with dual polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) 32 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals, and of 336.6 km for net data-rate 1.2-Tb/s transmission with dual PDM-64QAM signals. This is the first demonstration of applying hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and backward-distributed Raman amplifier were applied to terrestrial G.654.E fiber links. We also confirmed the stability of signal performance over field fiber transmission in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) condition. The Q-factor fluctuations respectively were only less than or equal to 0.052dB and 0.07dB for PDM-32QAM and PDM-64QAM signals within continuous measurements for 60 minutes.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1183-1189 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

Ultra-Low Crosstalk Multi-Core Fiber with Standard 125-μm Cladding Diameter for 10,000km-Class Long-Haul Transmission CiNiiでみる

著者名:
SAGAE Yuto  MATSUI Takashi  SAKAMOTO Taiji  NAKAJIMA Kazuhide 

抄録:

We propose an ultra-low inter-core crosstalk (XT) multi-core fiber (MCF) with standard 125-μm cladding. We show the fiber design and fabrication results of an MCF housing four cores with W-shaped index profile; it offers XT of less than -67dB/km over the whole C+L band. This enables us to realize 10,000-km transmission with negligible XT penalty. We also observe a low-loss of 0.17dB/km (average) at a wavelength of 1.55μm and other optical properties compatible with ITU-T G.654.B fiber. We also elucidate its good micro-bend resistance in terms of both the loss and XT to confirm its applicability to high-density optical fiber cables. Finally, we show that the fabricated MCF is feasible along with long-distance transmission by confirming that the XT noise performance corresponds to transmission distances of 10,000km or more.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1199-1205 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

Characterization of Multi-Layer Ceramic Chip Capacitors up to mm-Wave Frequencies for High-Speed Digital Signal Coupling CiNiiでみる

著者名:
SHIBATA Tsugumichi  KATO Yoshito 

抄録:

Capacitive coupling of line coded and DC-balanced digital signals is often used to eliminate steady bias current flow between the systems or components in various communication systems. A multi-layer ceramic chip capacitor is promising for the capacitor of very broadband signal coupling because of its high frequency characteristics expected from the downsizing of the chip recent years. The lower limit of the coupling bandwidth is determined by the capacitance while the higher limit is affected by the parasitic inductance associated with the chip structure. In this paper, we investigate the coupling characteristics up to millimeter wave frequencies by the measurement and simulations. A phenomenon has been found in which the change in the current distribution in the chip structure occur at high frequencies and the coupling characteristics are improved compared to the prediction based on the conventional equivalent circuit model. A new equivalent circuit model of chip capacitor that can express the effect of the improvement has been proposed.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
575-581 , 
ISSN:
0916-8524

Co-Design of Binary Processing in Memory ReRAM Array and DNN Model Optimization Algorithm CiNiiでみる

著者名:
GUAN Yue  OHSAWA Takashi 

抄録:

In recent years, deep neural network (DNN) has achieved considerable results on many artificial intelligence tasks, e.g. natural language processing. However, the computation complexity of DNN is extremely high. Furthermore, the performance of traditional von Neumann computing architecture has been slowing down due to the memory wall problem. Processing in memory (PIM), which places computation within memory and reduces the data movement, breaks the memory wall. ReRAM PIM is thought to be a available architecture for DNN accelerators. In this work, a novel design of ReRAM neuromorphic system is proposed to process DNN fully in array efficiently. The binary ReRAM array is composed of 2T2R storage cells and current mirror sense amplifiers. A dummy BL reference scheme is proposed for reference voltage generation. A binary DNN (BDNN) model is then constructed and optimized on MNIST dataset. The model reaches a validation accuracy of 96.33% and is deployed to the ReRAM PIM system. Co-design model optimization method between hardware device and software algorithm is proposed with the idea of utilizing hardware variance information as uncertainness in optimization procedure. This method is analyzed to achieve feasible hardware design and generalizable model. Deployed with such co-design model, ReRAM array processes DNN with high robustness against fabrication fluctuation.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
685-692 , 
ISSN:
0916-8524

Efficient Detection for Large-Scale MIMO Systems Using Dichotomous Coordinate Descent Iterations CiNiiでみる

著者名:
QUAN Zhi  LV Shuhua  JIANG Li 

抄録:

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is an enabling technology for next-generation wireless systems because it provides significant improvements in data rates compared to existing small-scale MIMO systems. However, the increased number of antennas results in high computational complexity for data detection, and requires more efficient detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new data detector based on a box-constrained complex-valued dichotomous coordinate descent (BCC-DCD) algorithm for large-scale MIMO systems. The proposed detector involves two steps. First, a transmitted data vector is detected using the BCC-DCD algorithm with a large number of iterations and high solution precision. Second, an improved soft output is generated by reapplying the BCC-DCD algorithm, but with a considerably smaller number of iterations and 1-bit solution precision. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms existing advanced detectors while possessing lower complexity. Specifically, the proposed method provides significantly better detection performance than a BCC-DCD algorithm with similar complexity. The performance advantage increases as the signal-to-noise ratio and the system size increase.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1310-1317 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

Highly Reliable and Compact InP-Based In-Phase and Quadrature Modulators for Over 400 Gbit/s Coherent Transmission Systems CiNiiでみる

著者名:
TANAKA Hajime  KATSUYAMA Tomokazu  EKAWA Mitsuru  SHOJI Hajime  ISHIKAWA Tsutomu  KITAMURA Takashi  WATANABE Masataka  YAMABI Ryuji  YAMAGUCHI Ryo  KONO Naoya  KIKUCHI Takehiko  SEKI Morihiro 

抄録:

We fabricated an InP-based dual-polarization In-phase and Quadrature (DP-IQ) modulator consisting of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator array integrated with RF termination resistors and backside via holes for high-bandwidth coherent driver modulators and revealed its high reliability. These integrations allowed the chip size (Chip size: 4.4mm×3mm) to be reduced by 59% compared with the previous chip without these integrations, that is, the previous chip needed 8 chip-resistors for terminating RF signals and 12 RF electrode pads for the electrical connection with these resistors in a Signal-Ground-Signal configuration. This MZ modulator exhibited a 3-dB bandwidth of around 40 GHz as its electrical/optical response, which is sufficient for over 400 Gbit/s coherent transmission systems using 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 64QAM signals. Also, we investigated a rapid degradation which affects the reliability of InP-based DP-IQ modulators. This rapid degradation we called optical damage is caused by strong incident light power and a high reverse bias voltage condition at the entrance of an electrode in each arm of the MZ modulators. This rapid degradation makes it difficult to estimate the lifetime of the chip using an accelerated aging test, because the value of the breakdown voltage which induces optical damage varies considerably depending on conditions, such as light power, operation wavelength, and chip temperature. Therefore, we opted for the step stress test method to investigate the lifetime of the chip. As a result, we confirmed that optical damage occurred when photo-current density at the entrance of an electrode exceeded threshold current density and demonstrated that InP-based modulators did not degrade unless operation conditions reached threshold current density. This threshold current density was independent of incident light power, operation wavelength and chip temperature.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
661-668 , 
ISSN:
0916-8524

Example Phrase Adaptation Method for Customized, Example-Based Dialog System Using User Data and Distributed Word Representations CiNiiでみる

著者名:
KITAOKA Norihide  SETO Eichi  NISHIMURA Ryota 

抄録:

We have developed an adaptation method which allows the customization of example-based dialog systems for individual users by applying "plus" and "minus" operations to the distributed representations obtained using the word2vec method. After retrieving user-related profile information from the Web, named entity extraction is applied to the retrieval results. Words with a high term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) score are then adopted as user related words. Next, we calculate the similarity between the distrubuted representations of selected user-related words and nouns in the existing example phrases, using word2vec embedding. We then generate phrases adapted to the user by substituting user-related words for highly similar words in the original example phrases. Word2vec also has a special property which allows the arithmetic operations "plus" and "minus" to be applied to distributed word representations. By applying these operations to words used in the original phrases, we are able to determine which user-related words can be used to replace the original words. The user-related words are then substituted to create customized example phrases. We evaluated the naturalness of the generated phrases and found that the system could generate natural phrases.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
2332-2339 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

Citation Count Prediction Based on Neural Hawkes Model CiNiiでみる

著者名:
LIU Lisha  YU Dongjin  WANG Dongjing  FUKUMOTO Fumiyo 

抄録:

With the rapid development of scientific research, the number of publications, such as scientific papers and patents, has grown rapidly. It becomes increasingly important to identify those with high quality and great impact from such a large volume of publications. Citation count is one of the well-known indicators of the future impact of the publications. However, how to interpret a large number of uncertain factors of publications as relevant features and utilize them to capture the impact of publications over time is still a challenging problem. This paper presents an approach that effectively leverages a variety of factors with a neural-based citation prediction model. Specifically, the proposed model is based on the Neural Hawkes Process (NHP) with the continuous-time Long Short-Term Memory (cLSTM), which can capture the aging effect and the phenomenon of sleeping beauty more effectively from publication covariates as well as citation counts. The experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines. In addition, the contribution of covariates to performance improvement is also verified.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
2379-2388 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

Measurement of Spectral Transfer Matrix for DMD Analysis by Using Linear Optical Sampling CiNiiでみる

著者名:
OSAKA Yuki  ITO Fumihiko  IIDA Daisuke  MANABE Tetsuya 

抄録:

Mode-by-mode impulse responses, or spectral transfer matrix (STM) of birefringent fibers are measured by using linear optical sampling, with assist of polarization multiplexed probe pulse. By using the eigenvalue analysis of the STM, the differential mode delay and PMD vector of polarization-maintaining fiber are analyzed as a function of optical frequency over 1THz. We show that the amplitude averaging of the complex impulse responses is effective for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, resulting in improving the accuracy and expanding the bandwidth of the measurement.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1233-1239 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

Comparison of Optical Transport Technologies for Centralized Radio Access Network Using Optical Ground Wire CiNiiでみる

著者名:
IKEDA Kensuke  LIM Christina  NIRMALATHAS Ampalavanapillai  RANAWEERA Chathurika 

抄録:

Communication networks for wide-scale distributed energy resources (DERs) including photovoltaics (PVs), wind, storage and battery systems and electric vehicles (EVs) will be indispensable in future power grids. In this paper, we compare optical fronthaul networks using existing optical ground wires (OPGWs) for centralized radio access network (C-RAN) architecture to realize cost effective wireless communication network expansion including low population area. We investigate the applicability of optical data transport technologies of physical layer split (PLS), analog radio-on-fiber (ARoF), and common public radio interface (CPRI). The deployment costs of them are comparatively analyzed. It was shown that physical layer split and analog radio-on-fiber with subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) result in lower cost than other technologies.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1240-1248 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

PPLN-Based Low-Noise Phase Sensitive Amplification Using an Optical Phase-Locked Pump CiNiiでみる

著者名:
KAZAMA Takushi  UMEKI Takeshi  OKAMURA Yasuhiro  ENBUTSU Koji  TADANAGA Osamu  TAKADA Atsushi  KASAHARA Ryoichi 

抄録:

We evaluated the noise properties of a periodically poled lithium niobite phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA) using a phase-locked local oscillator as a pump generated by an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL-LO). To examine whether or not the LO pump generated by an OPLL degrades the noise figure (NF) of the PSA, we compared the noise levels of a PSA using an OPLL-LO with that of one using a master local oscillator (M-LO) that utilizes the master light itself as a pump in the electrical domain. With the OPLL, the phase-locked local light had almost the same frequency noise components as the master light. We observed almost the same output noise spectra for the OPLL-LO PSA and M-LO PSA and confirmed the absence of excess noise components in the OPLL-LO PSA in the 0.1 to 20-GHz range. The OPLL-LO PSA exhibited low-noise amplification with an average NF of 1.7-dB at a 23.2-dB gain within an input power range of -31 to -21dBm, which is a feasible input power for repeater amplifiers used in the optical signal transmission systems. We also investigated the influence of the noisy master light, which emulates the accumulation of optical noise from the amplifiers in the transmission system. The OPLL-LO PSA was highly tolerant to the optical noise because the difference in the NF was negligibly small within a master light OSNR range of 5 to 55dB. These results indicate that the OPLL-LO PSA will be useful as a low-noise repeater amplifier for the spectrally efficient large-capacity photonic networks of the future.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1265-1271 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

Reach Extension of 10G-EPON Upstream Transmission Using Distributed Raman Amplification and SOA CiNiiでみる

著者名:
IGARASHI Ryo  FUJIWARA Masamichi  KANAI Takuya  SUZUKI Hiro  KANI Jun-ichi  TERADA Jun 

抄録:

Effective user accommodation will be more and more important in passive optical networks (PONs) in the next decade since the number of subscribers has been leveling off as well and it is becoming more difficult for network operators to keep sufficient numbers of maintenance workers. Drastically reducing the number of small-scale communication buildings while keeping the number of accommodated users is one of the most attractive solutions to meet this situation. To achieve this, we propose two types of long-reach repeater-free upstream transmission configurations for PON systems; (i) one utilizes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as a pre-amplifier and (ii) the other utilizes distributed Raman amplification (DRA) in addition to the SOA. Our simulations assuming 10G-EPON specifications and transmission experiments on a 10G-EPON prototype confirm that configuration (i) can add a 17km trunk fiber to a normal PON system with 10km access reach and 1 : 64 split (total 27km reach), while configuration (ii) can further expand the trunk fiber distance to 37km (total 47km reach). Network operators can select these configurations depending on their service areas.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1257-1264 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516

FF-Control Point Insertion (FF-CPI) to Overcome the Degradation of Fault Detection under Multi-Cycle Test for POST CiNiiでみる

著者名:
Al-AWADHI Hanan T.  AONO Tomoki  WANG Senling  HIGAMI Yoshinobu  TAKAHASHI Hiroshi  IWATA Hiroyuki  MAEDA Yoichi  MATSUSHIMA Jun 

抄録:

Multi-cycle Test looks promising a way to reduce the test application time of POST (Power-on Self-Test) for achieving a targeted high fault coverage specified by ISO26262 for testing automotive devices. In this paper, we first analyze the mechanism of Stuck-at Fault Detection Degradation problem in multi-cycle test. Based on the result of our analysis we propose a novel solution named FF-Control Point Insertion technique (FF-CPI) to achieve the reduction of scan-in patterns by multi-cycle test. The FF-CPI technique modifies the captured values of scan Flip-Flops (FFs) during capture operation by directly reversing the value of partial FFs or loading random vectors. The FF-CPI technique enhances the number of detectable stuck-at faults under the capture patterns. The experimental results of ISCAS89 and ITC99 benchmarks validated the effectiveness of FF-CPI technique in scan-in pattern reduction for POST.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
2289-2301 , 
ISSN:
0916-8532

Design for Long-Reach Coexisting PON Considering Subscriber Distribution with Wavelength Selective Asymmetrical Splitters CiNiiでみる

著者名:
HARA Kazutaka  KAWAKITA Atsuko  KIMURA Yasutaka  SUZUKI Yasuhiro  IKEDA Satoshi  TSUJI Kohji 

抄録:

A long-reach coexisting PON system (1G/10G-EPON, video, and TWDM-PON) that uses the Wavelength Selective-Asymmetrical optical SPlitter (WS-ASP) without any active devices like optical amplifiers is proposed. The proposal can take into account the subscriber distribution in an access network and provide specific services in specific areas by varying the splitting ratios and the branch structure in the optical splitter. Simulations confirm the key features of WS-ASP, its novel process for deriving the splitting-ratios and greater transmission distance than possible with symmetrical splitters. Experiments on a prototype system demonstrate how wavelengths can be assigned to specific areas and optical link budget enhancement. For 1G-EPON systems, the prototype system with splitting-ratio of 60% attains the optical link budget enhancement of 4.2dB compared with conventional symmetrical optical splitters. The same prototype offers the optical link budget enhancement of 4.0dB at the bit rate of 10G-EPON systems. The values measured in the experiment agree well with the simulation results with respect to the transmission distance.


出版年月日:
2020 , 
巻:
103 , 
号:
11 , 
ページ:
1249-1256 , 
ISSN:
0916-8516