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Design and Implementation of a Multicomplex Number Library for Computing any Order of Derivatives CiNiiでみる

著者名:
Shaowen Li  Hiroyuki Sato 

抄録:
Derivatives are the central pillar for solving many computational problems including the training of neural networks, the development of artificial intelligence tools, and physical simulations. Various methods for computing derivatives exist, and they can be classified into four categories: (1) manual derivation; (2) numerical differentiation; (3) symbolic differentiation; and (4) automatic differentiation. Using complex numbers for computing derivatives can be considered as a numerical method, and it avoids the cancellation error inherent to the finite difference method. It possesses advantages from numerical differentiation including better efficiency and easy implementation. Implemented properly, it also achieves comparable accuracy with symbolic and automatic differentiation. Generalizing complex number to higher dimensions further enables us to calculate derivatives of any order, which is hard to obtain using other approaches. In this work, the knowledge of multicomplex algebra is first described and a C++ multicomplex class is constructed. The efficiency and accuracy of potential implementations are compared. Furthermore, a source code transformer that automatically embeds the multicomplex data type into the original program is implemented. The transformer augments this approach with the advantage that programmers can focus solely on building the computation and only a minimum code rewriting is needed. We evaluate the performance and productivity of our library and the transformer in two applications: poisoning attack and mass-spring simulation.Derivatives are the central pillar for solving many computational problems including the training of neural networks, the development of artificial intelligence tools, and physical simulations. Various methods for computing derivatives exist, and they can be classified into four categories: (1) manual derivation; (2) numerical differentiation; (3) symbolic differentiation; and (4) automatic differentiation. Using complex numbers for computing derivatives can be considered as a numerical method, and it avoids the cancellation error inherent to the finite difference method. It possesses advantages from numerical differentiation including better efficiency and easy implementation. Implemented properly, it also achieves comparable accuracy with symbolic and automatic differentiation. Generalizing complex number to higher dimensions further enables us to calculate derivatives of any order, which is hard to obtain using other approaches. In this work, the knowledge of multicomplex algebra is first described and a C++ multicomplex class is constructed. The efficiency and accuracy of potential implementations are compared. Furthermore, a source code transformer that automatically embeds the multicomplex data type into the original program is implemented. The transformer augments this approach with the advantage that programmers can focus solely on building the computation and only a minimum code rewriting is needed. We evaluate the performance and productivity of our library and the transformer in two applications: poisoning attack and mass-spring simulation.

出版年月日:
2022-01-05 , 
巻:
15 , 
号:
1 , 
ページ:
17-17 , 
ISSN:
1882-7802

来館目的と利用行動からみた複合公立図書館の利用実態に関する研究:St, Tg館における施設利用者の来館目的と利用空間のつながりについて CiNiiでみる

著者名:
志波 文彦  福本 七海  二田水 宏次 

抄録:

This research clarifies the following issues to obtain useful knowledge for future public library planning by capturing the behavior of the complex public library based on the user's purpose of visit. First, the functional structure and management policy of the complex public library in recent years were examined. Second, the connection between users' purpose of visit and the space used at St and Tg libraries were clarified. Finally, the users' purpose of visit, patterns and development of "by-the-way use," and expansion of space used under "stop by use" were evaluated to determine the usage structure of the stay-oriented library.


出版年月日:
2022 , 
巻:
87 , 
号:
791 , 
ページ:
12-21 , 
ISSN:
1340-4210

COVID-19下の大学図書館におけるレファレンスサービスの拡充-九州大学附属図書館の実践例から CiNiiでみる

著者名:
渡邊 由紀子 

抄録:

COVID-19の感染拡大に伴い,日本では多くの大学図書館が来館型サービスを休止・制限せざるを得なくなった。本稿では,そのような特殊状況下において大学図書館がレファレンスサービスを拡充する方法について,九州大学の実践例を基に検討した。九州大学附属図書館は,図書館TA(ティーチング・アシスタント)と協働しながら,既存の質問回答サービス,Web学習ガイド,学部1年生向け講習会,図書館TA企画イベントを非来館型に進化させ,サービスを強化した。それらの実践から得られた知見をまとめ,今後は非来館型サービスを来館型サービスと統合して,ハイブリッドなレファレンスサービスを展開していく必要があることを示した。


出版年月日:
2022 , 
巻:
72 , 
号:
1 , 
ページ:
12-17 , 
ISSN:
0913-3801

<実践報告>オンラインで実施されるゲーム型の図書館ガイダンスの制作と実践 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
寺島 哲平  石田 喜美  名城 邦孝  関 敦央  宮崎 雅之 

抄録:
筆者らの研究チームでは, これまで大学図書館の利用方法が学べるゲーム型の図書館ガイダンス「Libardry」(リバードリィ)を大学図書館で実施してきた.しかし2020年度は, 新型コロナウイルス感染拡大防止の影響により, 大学図書館は閉館を余儀なくされた.このような状況下で, 多くの大学図書館では, オンラインで図書館ガイダンスを実施する試みを行った.同様に筆者らの研究チームでも, 今までのゲーム型の図書館ガイダンスの知見を活かし, 有料ツールや特別な技術がなくとも制作可能な, 図書館ガイダンス「Libardy Form」(リバードリィ・フォーム)を制作することを試み, それが図書館利用学習へもたらす影響を知るための探索的な調査を実施した.具体的には「Libardry Form」の特徴を試行調査として, 第一著者が担当する大学授業とSNSを通じて, 「Libardry Form」のプレイ体験者を募集し, 大学生11人, 一般参加者31人の協力を得た.プレイ体験後アンケート調査への回答を依頼したところ, 動画型の図書館ガイダンスよりもゲーム型の図書館ガイダンスを選好する回答者が33人(78.6%)であることがわかった.またプレイを体験した大学生11人に対して, 追加の事前・事後調査についての協力を求め, 得られた8人の有効回答についての結果を分析すると, 大学図書館を利用した経験のある2年生や3年生には「Libardry Form」の影響を認めることが難しかった.一方, 有効回答数が少ないため一般化はできないものの, 大学図書館を利用した経験の少ない1年生の理解度向上に寄与する可能性があることが示唆された.

出版年月日:
2021-12-20 , 
巻:
, 
号:
2 , 
ページ:
12j-21j , 
ISSN:

澁澤龍彥の「蔵書目録」について(1) CiNiiでみる

著者名:
跡上 史郎 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12-16 , 
巻:
, 
号:
70 , 
ページ:
272-267 , 
ISSN:
2188-1871

京都大学図書館機構による研究データ管理・公開支援 (第26回情報知識学フォーラム予稿) CiNiiでみる

著者名:
西岡 千文  宮田 怜  村上 史歩 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12 , 
巻:
31 , 
号:
4 , 
ページ:
482-485 , 
ISSN:
0917-1436

海外図書館の最新動向(第26回)世界的に評価の高いシンガポールの図書館とシンガポールの現在 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
カスマラ 知子 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12 , 
巻:
, 
号:
204 , 
ページ:
21-30 , 
ISSN:
1342-1905

帯広畜産大学附属図書館における新型コロナウイルス感染症対応 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
佐藤 亜紀 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12 , 
巻:
, 
号:
204 , 
ページ:
16-20 , 
ISSN:
1342-1905

図書館を取り巻く著作権の現状(中編)図書館法との比較を通してみる著作権法(2) CiNiiでみる

著者名:
我妻 潤子 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12 , 
巻:
, 
号:
204 , 
ページ:
1-7 , 
ISSN:
1342-1905

玉里文庫本『古筆源氏物語』「若菜下」巻・第一~四〇丁の翻刻と考察 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
武藤 那賀子  富澤 萌未  ムトウ ナガコ  トミザワ モエミ  Nagako Muto  Moemi Tomizawa 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-12 , 
巻:
22 , 
号:
3 , 
ページ:
240(1)-210(31) , 
ISSN:
1345-9929

立教大学図書館蔵『平家物語』翻刻(2)巻第四~巻第六 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
朴 知恵  鈴木 彰  パク チエ  スズキ アキラ  Jihye Park  Akira Suzuki 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-11 , 
巻:
, 
号:
21 , 
ページ:
17-85 , 
ISSN:
1346-6011

鳥取県立図書館所蔵の往来物資料について ― 目的別と出版地域別の分類整理 ― CiNiiでみる

著者名:
郡 千寿子 

抄録:
鳥取県立図書館に所蔵されている近世期版本の往来物資料について、調査した概要を報告する。和本のみの目録はなく、『鳥取県立図書館 和漢籍分類目録―鳥取県立鳥取図書館旧蔵―』1)『鳥取県立鳥取図書館 郷土資料目録昭和54年3月31日現在』2)により調査し、調査対象に該当すると思われる近世期の往来物資料を選別した。加えて文献調査を実施し、考察検討のうえ分類整理した。 総数では、28本の近世期版本の往来物資料が確認された。目的別に分類してみると、教訓科往来が5本、社会科往来は所蔵がなく、語彙科往来が1本、消息科往来が14本、地理科往来の所蔵がなく、歴史科往来が3本、産業科往来が3本、理数科往来の所蔵はなく、女子用往来が2本という結果であった。出版地域別の分類では、江戸が6本、京都が10本、大坂が3本で、不明が9本という結果であった。地理的に近い京都の出版が最多であり、関西圏からの影響が大きかったことが予想される。しかし、江戸の出版は、大坂より多く、不明が9本存在することを合わせて考えると、江戸文化圏からの影響が必ずしも少ないとはいえないであろう。すでに公表している島根県立図書館での調査結果との比較検討も行い、地域の偏在状況や格差についてもグラフ化して提示した。  往来物の分布を通して、地域の教育的背景の格差や文化伝播状況などを解明することを目的としているが、本稿は、島根に次ぐ山陰地域の調査地点である。従来、山陰地域の往来物資料は『往来物解題辞典』でも記載が少なく、調査の空白地帯であった。今後、他地域の状況と比較する上で基盤となる調査の一報である。

出版年月日:
2021-10-25 , 
巻:
, 
号:
126 , 
ページ:
1-7 , 
ISSN:
0439-1713

IoTマルウェアにおける関数の依存関係と結合の順序関係に基づくライブラリ関数名の特定 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
赤羽 秀  川古谷 裕平  岩村 誠  岡本 剛 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-10-19 , 
巻:
, 
号:
, 
ページ:
786-793 , 
ISSN:

Androidアプリケーションにおける暗号ライブラリ利用状況の大規模調査 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
金岡 晃  阿部 衛 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-10-19 , 
巻:
, 
号:
, 
ページ:
967-973 , 
ISSN:

天理図書館蔵『庭訓私記』翻刻(二) CiNiiでみる

著者名:
小木曽 千代子 

抄録:

出版年月日:
2021-10-01 , 
巻:
56 , 
号:
1 , 
ページ:
137-204 , 
ISSN:
0287-3443

緊急事態宣言解除直後の図書館の新型コロナウイルス感染拡大予防対策の評価 ?ある図書館でのキャプション評価の実施 CiNiiでみる

著者名:
松原 茂樹 

抄録:

This study aims to record COVID-19 infection control in detail and to evaluate this in one library. Caption evaluation method was carried out in late June 2020. The evaluation near the counter was generally good in terms of measures to avoid gathering and information presentation. However, in terms of contact, there were many bad evaluations such as handicapped items, copiers, leaflets, etc. Prioritizing the development of user areas, the area where staffs work was not developed. It is significant that the evaluation was carried out because a third party pointed out that the staffs alone had overlooked them.


出版年月日:
2021-10 , 
巻:
, 
号:
67 , 
ページ:
1361-1366 , 
ISSN:
1341-9463

Rumpfr: A Fast and Memory Leak-free Rust Binding to the GNU MPFR Library CiNiiでみる

著者名:
Tomoya Michinaka  Hideyuki Kawabata  Tetsuo Hironaka 

抄録:
The GNU MPFR library for arbitrary-precision floating-point arithmetic is widely used, and its Foreign Function Interface bindings to various languages have been developed. For the Rust programming language, existing bindings to the MPFR library include gmp-mpfr-sys (a low-level binding) and Rug (a binding that utilizes gmp-mpfr-sys to provide a more user-friendly interface). However, neither has sufficient descriptiveness and performance as bindings for general users of Rust, which is a programming language featuring high memory safety and high speed. We have developed a Rust binding, Rumpfr, to the MPFR library, that offers an easy way to write programs that perform high-speed multiple-precision floating-point computation. Rumpfr provides an interface that follows that of the MPFR library but hides the complexity of managing the mantissa area of floating-point numbers from the user. Rumpfr uses Rust's variable-length arrays to allocate mantissa areas, making it easy to handle without compromising Rust's high memory safety. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of Rumpfr and present the results of numerical experiments demonstrating that Rumpfr can be used to write programs with low overhead.------------------------------This is a preprint of an article intended for publication Journal ofInformation Processing(JIP). This preprint should not be cited. Thisarticle should be cited as: Journal of Information Processing Vol.29(2021) (online)------------------------------The GNU MPFR library for arbitrary-precision floating-point arithmetic is widely used, and its Foreign Function Interface bindings to various languages have been developed. For the Rust programming language, existing bindings to the MPFR library include gmp-mpfr-sys (a low-level binding) and Rug (a binding that utilizes gmp-mpfr-sys to provide a more user-friendly interface). However, neither has sufficient descriptiveness and performance as bindings for general users of Rust, which is a programming language featuring high memory safety and high speed. We have developed a Rust binding, Rumpfr, to the MPFR library, that offers an easy way to write programs that perform high-speed multiple-precision floating-point computation. Rumpfr provides an interface that follows that of the MPFR library but hides the complexity of managing the mantissa area of floating-point numbers from the user. Rumpfr uses Rust's variable-length arrays to allocate mantissa areas, making it easy to handle without compromising Rust's high memory safety. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of Rumpfr and present the results of numerical experiments demonstrating that Rumpfr can be used to write programs with low overhead.------------------------------This is a preprint of an article intended for publication Journal ofInformation Processing(JIP). This preprint should not be cited. Thisarticle should be cited as: Journal of Information Processing Vol.29(2021) (online)------------------------------

出版年月日:
2021-09-30 , 
巻:
14 , 
号:
4 , 
ページ:
- , 
ISSN:
1882-7802

PelemayFp: An Efficient Parallelization Library for Elixir Based on Skeletons for Data Parallelism CiNiiでみる

著者名:
Susumu Yamazaki 

抄録:
In this presentation, we propose Pelemay Fast Parallel map (PelemayFp), which is a library to parallelize Elixir code, efficiently, based on skeletons for data parallelism. PelemayFp is implemented using only Elixir, like Flow, which is a library of previous works. In Flow, the order of the list after computation is not guaranteed, while in PelemayFp, the order of the list is guaranteed because it is sorting while collecting and merging. On the other hand, Pelemay Super Parallelism (Pelemay), which we proposed, generates native code using SIMD instructions and calls it by NIFs, which is one of FFIs that Erlang provides, without performing multi-core parallelism, guaranteeing the order of the list. We evaluated the integer arithmetic performance by logistic mapping of PelemayFp alone, Pelemay alone, the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay, Flow, and Enum, which is in the standard library of Elixir. When run on an Intel Xeon W-2191B CPU with 18 cores and 36 threads, the PelemayFp alone is up to 2.1 times faster than Enum. It is also faster than Flow without sorting. On the other hand, the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay is up to 1.27 times faster than Enum. We also estimated the percentage of parallel execution in the entire code based on Amdahl's law. That of PelemayFp is 48-66 percent, while that of the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay is 21-46 percent. Further analysis revealed that this experimental results can be explained by assuming that when calling native code from Elixir with NIFs, the part that is not executed in parallel increases by about 40 percent. Therefore, when generating native code including SIMD instructions and adopting the approach of parallelizing with Elixir for speeding up, it will be appropriate to incorporate a code optimization mechanism using SIMD instructions into the JIT, which will be released in the next major version of Erlang, or to use another FFI method, Port, instead of using NIFs.In this presentation, we propose Pelemay Fast Parallel map (PelemayFp), which is a library to parallelize Elixir code, efficiently, based on skeletons for data parallelism. PelemayFp is implemented using only Elixir, like Flow, which is a library of previous works. In Flow, the order of the list after computation is not guaranteed, while in PelemayFp, the order of the list is guaranteed because it is sorting while collecting and merging. On the other hand, Pelemay Super Parallelism (Pelemay), which we proposed, generates native code using SIMD instructions and calls it by NIFs, which is one of FFIs that Erlang provides, without performing multi-core parallelism, guaranteeing the order of the list. We evaluated the integer arithmetic performance by logistic mapping of PelemayFp alone, Pelemay alone, the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay, Flow, and Enum, which is in the standard library of Elixir. When run on an Intel Xeon W-2191B CPU with 18 cores and 36 threads, the PelemayFp alone is up to 2.1 times faster than Enum. It is also faster than Flow without sorting. On the other hand, the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay is up to 1.27 times faster than Enum. We also estimated the percentage of parallel execution in the entire code based on Amdahl's law. That of PelemayFp is 48-66 percent, while that of the combination of PelemayFp and Pelemay is 21-46 percent. Further analysis revealed that this experimental results can be explained by assuming that when calling native code from Elixir with NIFs, the part that is not executed in parallel increases by about 40 percent. Therefore, when generating native code including SIMD instructions and adopting the approach of parallelizing with Elixir for speeding up, it will be appropriate to incorporate a code optimization mechanism using SIMD instructions into the JIT, which will be released in the next major version of Erlang, or to use another FFI method, Port, instead of using NIFs.

出版年月日:
2021-09-30 , 
巻:
14 , 
号:
4 , 
ページ:
4-4 , 
ISSN:
1882-7802